The authors also discussed the invitation of Italy, Greece, Turkey, Portugal, Iceland and the Scandinavian countries, mainly because of its strategic value. Italy, Portugal and Iceland were among the founding members and eventually Greece and Turkey joined the alliance in 1952. Iceland combined its members with those of Denmark and Norway, which were also among the founding members in 1949; Sweden, on the other hand, has categorically refused to have ties with NATO because of its strong commitment to neutrality. In 1947-1948, a series of events led Western European nations to worry about their physical and political security and to become more involved with the United States in European affairs. The ongoing civil war in Greece and tensions in Turkey prompted President Harry S. Truman on the claim that the United States would provide economic and military assistance to both countries, as well as to any other nation fighting against an attempt at submission. A Soviet-sponsored coup in Czechoslovakia led to the coming to power of a communist government on Germany`s borders. Attention also focused on the Italian elections, as the Communist Party had made significant gains among Italian voters. In addition, the events in Germany have also raised concerns. Germany`s post-war occupation and government had long been controversial, and in mid-1948 Soviet Prime Minister Joseph Stalin decided to test Western resolve by carrying out a blockade against West Berlin, which was then under joint control of the United States, British, and French, but surrounded by Soviet-controlled East Germany. This Berlin crisis brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of conflict, although a massive airlift to supply the city avoided direct confrontation for the duration of the blockade. ==Years==Officials are increasingly wary of the possibility that Western European countries could solve their security problems through negotiations with the Soviets. To counter this possible turn of events, the Truman administration considered the possibility of forming a Euro-American alliance that would commit the United States to strengthening the security of Western Europe.
On 18 September, Ukraine`s Minister of Ecology and Natural Resources, Oleg Proskuriakov, signed an agreement with the NATO Support Agency (NSPA) to carry out a project to clean up up to six sites containing radioactive waste. The North Atlantic Treaty, also known as the Washington Treaty, is the treaty that forms the legal basis of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is implemented by it. The treaty was signed on April 4, 1949 in Washington, D.C. The 24th and 25th. In January, NATO and Ukraine discussed protection against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) threats in preparation for the UEFA European Football Championship in June 2012. Poland and Ukraine, host countries of the football event, have asked NATO to help provide security during the championship. The head of NATO`s Weapons of Mass Destruction Centre, Ambassador Jacek Bylica, said NATO would facilitate the process through cbRN and counter-terrorism assistance, while some aspects of security had to be provided by host nations. On 2 February, the NATO Verification Coordination Committee held its 10th seminar on conventional arms control agreements, the first since the signing of the Treaty on the Adaptation of Conventional Forces in Europe in November 1999.